Journal article: "Intergenerational money and time transfers by gender in Spain: Who are the actual dependents?" by Elisenda Rentería, Rosario Scandurra, Guadalupe Souto, and Concepció Patxot

Rentería, E., Scandurra, R., Souto, G., and Patxot, C. (2016). "Intergenerational money and time transfers by gender in Spain: Who are the actual dependants?" Demographic Research, 34: 689-704.


Background: The analysis of intergenerational transfers can shed light on the interaction between population age structure and welfare. Nevertheless, a thorough examination of this issue requires consideration of both monetary (market) and time (non-market) transfers.

Objective: We analyse market and non-market production, consumption, and transfers by age and gender for Spain from 2009−2010 using National (Time) Transfer Accounts (NTA and NTTA) methodology.

Methods: Using National Accounts, microdata from different surveys, and the Time Use Survey, we estimate age and sex-specific profiles of monetary and time production and consumption for Spain. Consequently, a surplus or deficit and the resulting transfers are obtained.

Results: We observe higher labour income for men with respect to women throughout the age profile. Nevertheless, women spend more hours in total (market and non-market activities) than men. This division drives an asymmetry in private transfers. While men are net donors of money to other age groups during their working life, women are net donors of time to other household members (mainly children and their partners) over their lives.

Conclusions: The inclusion of the non-market economy in the analysis of intergenerational transfers is crucial to observe real inequalities between genders throughout the life cycle. This challenges the ‘economic dependency’ of women based on a market economy. The results suggest that the public sector in Spain should reinforce policies that take into account women’s contribution to the welfare of other population groups, and call for policies that reconcile professional and family obligations.